How Much Do You Know About Precision Aluminum Profiles?
About precision deep processing of industrial aluminum profiles
The main material component of industrial aluminum profiles is aluminum alloy. After a series of processing and packaging processes, they are made into industrial supplies and daily necessities that we have seen and used. The final products often require deep processing, so the problem comes. Now, what is the method of deep processing industrial aluminum profiles? What technical support is needed during the processing?
The deep processing methods of industrial aluminum profiles include rolling, extrusion, drawing, and forging. However, in the deep processing of industrial aluminum profiles, to ensure the accuracy of the machine tool, the higher the better, the static bearing spindle is usually used. The tools used must be solid diamond-like tools after grinding. The cutting fluid can then be used directly with the emulsion for mirror finishing. The deep processing of the aluminum products processed by the latter is heat treatment, which is called the heat treatment of the finished product.
At present, the deep processing of high-precision aluminum materials in my country mainly faces the problems of aluminum alloy state design, application product structure design, and intelligent design of processing equipment, that is, upstream and downstream information asymmetry, lack of professional technology, resulting in unreasonable deep-processed products. There are many problems such as low production efficiency and lack of competitiveness in product applications. There are also problems such as the large gap between foreign design concepts and the imperfect development of R&D and application integration.
In the field of lightweight aluminum alloy applications, everyone is talking about lightweight. Although the development potential of aluminum “lightweight” is huge, it still faces high prices, lack of standards, and technical level to be improved. Encourage and support national policies, take real measures to promote the development of lightweight, realize the linkage of aluminum processing enterprises, equipment manufacturing enterprises, application enterprises, universities, and scientific research institutes, strengthen the exchange of information and demand, and promote the lightweight of aluminum alloys. play a very important role.
The concept of precision aluminum alloy structure manufacturing
Precision metal structure manufacturing is an advanced forming technology of precision metal parts, which specifically refers to the use of heat, force, molecular motion, and other means to make liquid or semi-liquid metal or metal alloy fill the mold cavity at a high speed under the action of force. , and forming and solidifying to obtain metal structural parts, and then through post-processing and CNC finishing, the final product size, shape, and performance can meet the target requirements of precision manufacturing technology. Generally, the dimensional accuracy of the product required for the manufacture of precision aluminum alloy structural parts is within 1 wire (1 wire = 0.01 mm), the surface roughness (Ra) of the product is within 1.6 microns, and the product geometry tolerance is within 0.1 mm/300 mm.
The processing methods used mainly include precision casting (die casting, gravity casting, low-pressure casting, etc.), precision cutting (including turning, milling, boring), precision grinding, abrasive belt grinding, precision polishing, EDM, EDM wire cutting, etc.; the selected processed materials are mainly aluminum alloy, magnesium alloy, zinc alloy, copper alloy, and other metal alloy materials.
In the manufacture of precision metal structures, aluminum alloy materials have many excellent casting properties such as good fluidity, small shrinkage, easy absorption, and easy oxidation compared with other metal materials (such as brass, bronze, zinc, etc.) The main material of choice for the fabrication of metal structures accounts for more than 80%.
Basic principles of precision parts processing
·Benchmark first: that is, the reference surface is processed first. During the machining process of the parts, the appearance of the positioning reference should be processed first, to provide an accurate reference for the processing of the subsequent process as soon as possible.
·Divide the processing stage: the surface parts with high machining quality requirements are divided into processing stages, which can generally be divided into three stages: roughing, semi-finishing, and finishing, mainly to ensure the processing quality: it is beneficial to scientific application equipment; it is convenient for Arrange the heat treatment process; to find the blank defects in time.
·Face first and then hole: For parts such as box, bracket, and connecting rod, the plane should be machined first, and then the hole should be machined, so that the hole can be positioned and machined on the plane to ensure the positional accuracy of the plane and the hole. convenient.
·Finishing processing: The finishing processing of the main surface, such as grinding, fine grinding, rolling processing, etc., should be placed at the end of the process route, formulate the general principles of the precision parts processing process route, and formulate the precision parts processing technology regulations. It can be divided into two parts. The first is to formulate the process route of parts processing, and then to determine the process size of each process, the equipment, and process equipment used, as well as cutting specifications, working hours, etc.
Parts are the basic requirements for constituting a machine and can be broadly divided into two categories: one is machining as the datum plane, and the parts are processed in machining.
The formulation of the processing route of precision parts is to formulate the overall layout of the process. The main task is to select each surface. The surface as the positioning reference should be processed first, to provide a precision reference for the processing of subsequent processes, and divide the processing stages: machining quality requirements High surface parts are divided into processing stages.
Precision Machining Technology of Aluminum Alloy Parts
Aluminum alloy is the main raw material in the industry. Due to the particularity of the material, how to process it to achieve the desired effect is one of the technical difficulties to be considered in the manufacturing process.
·Precision die-casting technology
The use of aluminum alloy die-casting parts reduces the quality of the car, reduces fuel consumption, and reduces exhaust gas; and the die-casting parts have the advantages of noise reduction and vibration reduction, and high casting accuracy. Aluminum alloy die-casting products are mainly used in electronics, automobiles, motors, home appliances, and some communication industries. Some high-quality aluminum alloy products with high performance, high precision, and high toughness are also used in large aircraft, ships, and other industries with relatively high requirements. . As we all know, die-casting aluminum alloy electroplating parts are widely used, especially in the automotive industry, the demand for die-casting aluminum alloy electroplating parts is very large. Aluminum alloy die-casting has high mechanical properties and can die-cast various complex and thin-walled castings. At present, the die-casting aluminum alloys used in the industry mainly include the following series: Al-Si-Cu, Al-Si-Mg, Al-Si, Al-Mg, Al-Zn, etc. The improvement of the mechanical properties of die-casting aluminum alloys is often accompanied by the reduction of the performance of the casting process. Due to the characteristics of high-pressure and rapid solidification, the pressure casting makes this contradiction more prominent in some aspects.
·Precision extrusion technology
The aluminum alloy extrusion technology is to pressurize with an extrusion pin after the die casting. The extrusion technology will increase the density of the product, increase the strength, and reduce the pores. It is mainly used for automobile parts. The aluminum alloy extrusion process starts from the product design, because the design of the product is based on the given use requirements, and the use requirements determine many final parameters of the product. Such as the machinability, surface treatment performance, and environmental requirements of the product, these properties and requirements determine the choice of the type of extruded aluminum alloy. Many modern industrial equipment and instruments such as precision instruments and some parts of weak current equipment require small, thin-walled, and very accurate cross-sectional aluminum profiles, and their dimensional tolerances are very strict. The minimum wall thickness of the profile is only 0.4mm, and its tolerance requirement is ±0.04mm. The extrusion production process has very strict requirements for equipment, molds, and processes. Generally, the indicators for controlling the extrusion process of aluminum alloys include the preheating temperature of the ingot, the temperature of the extrusion cylinder, the temperature of the die, the outlet temperature of the profile, the extrusion speed, the product speed, the extrusion ratio, etc.
·Precision forging technology
Forging is an important production method for metal forming and processing in the manufacturing industry. It can not only give a certain structural shape to the product but also directly improve and improve the structure and performance of the product. At the same time, forging is a collective term for forging and stamping. It is the use of hammers, anvils, punches of forging machinery, or through molds to apply pressure to the blank to produce plastic deformation, to obtain the desired shape and size. processing methods. After decades of construction and modernization, the world’s aluminum and aluminum alloy forging production and technology has developed by leaps and bounds, and a complete aluminum alloy forging production system and scientific research system have been formed. The variety and quality of products can meet The needs of the national economy and national defense and military construction. The important position of forging production in the national economy Forging production is one of the main ways to provide mechanical parts blanks to various industries. Forging can improve the metal structure and improve mechanical properties. This is because forging can press the sulfur pine in the billet, improve the density of the metal, and can also refine the coarse grains, and carbonize the high alloy tool steel. Etc. In addition, the shape and size of the forging parts are close to that of the parts, and compare with the forming method of direct cutting steel, not only the consumption of metal materials can be saved, but also the cutting time can be saved.
Characteristics of precision aluminum alloy structure manufacturing
In order to ensure the quality accuracy and processing accuracy of products, precision aluminum alloy structure manufacturing has high requirements for manufacturing equipment, processing tools, testing equipment, working environment, manufacturing process, fixture design, and technical proficiency of skilled workers:
·Manufacturing equipment: The required manufacturing equipment (casting equipment, CNC machining centers, etc.) needs to meet high precision (including high dynamic and static accuracy), high stiffness (including component stiffness, contact stiffness, process system stiffness, etc.), high stability and retention (that is, with good vibration resistance, thermal stability), high automation and other quality requirements.
·Processing tools: tools, abrasive tools, and other processing tools required in the manufacturing process have high hardness, good material texture, and other requirements, such as precision polishing, polyester, tin, and other materials need to be used as polishing tools, and diamond, corundum, silicon carbide and other materials with high hardness are used as abrasives for non-contact grinding and polishing, in-liquid grinding and polishing, etc., in order to obtain high precision and low surface roughness.
·Testing equipment: Precision manufacturing must have corresponding testing equipment and means. For the size, geometry, and position accuracy of high-precision products, electronic measuring instruments, pneumatic measuring instruments, vacuum measuring instruments, and three Coordinate detectors, etc.; In addition, X-ray testers, spectrum analyzers, cleanliness measuring instruments, and other testing equipment with accurate detection capabilities are required to detect product manufacturing quality such as material composition, product internal defects, and product cleanliness.
·Working environment: The working environment is a necessary condition to maintain the quality of precision manufacturing products and the accuracy of production equipment. -60%), air purification degree (the diameter of dust in the air is within 0.5 microns), anti-vibration, anti-static, etc. have more stringent requirements.
·Manufacturing process: The manufacturing process has a key global impact on product quality and production efficiency, especially in the manufacturing of precision aluminum alloy structures. The correct selection of the positioning datum of the processing surface, the clamping deformation of the workpiece and the correction of the deformation during processing, and the ejection of the casting mold tools are all key processes in the precision manufacturing process;
·Fixture design: The fixture is an important part of the precision aluminum alloy structure manufacturing system. It needs to have high precision, wear resistance, accurate positioning, and other properties, and different processes and even different structures are used to manufacture products.
Aluminum alloy is the most widely used non-ferrous metal structural material in the industry. Widely used in aviation, aerospace, automobile, machinery manufacturing, shipbuilding, chemical, and other industries. Aluminum alloy has the characteristics of low density and high strength, and it is close to or higher than that high-quality steel. It has very good plasticity and can be processed into various profiles. It has excellent electrical and thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. It is widely used in industry and its uses are second only to steel.
The processing of aluminum alloy parts, also known as CNC processing, automatic lathe processing, CNC lathe processing, etc.
(1) General-purpose machine tools such as automobiles, milling machines, planers, drilling machines, and grinding machines process mold parts, and then perform necessary fitter repairs and assemble them into various molds.
(2) For mold parts with high precision requirements, it is difficult to ensure high machining accuracy only with ordinary machine tools, so precision machine tools are required for processing.
(3) In order to make the processing of mold parts, especially the processing of punches, die holes, and cavities with complex shapes, more automated and reduce the workload of fitter maintenance, it is necessary to use CNC machine tools (such as 3D CNC milling machines, machining centers, CNC Grinders, and other equipment) to process mold parts.
Stamping of aluminum alloy parts
Stamping is a forming and processing method that applies external force to plates, strips, tubes, and profiles through presses and dies to plastically deform or separate them to obtain workpieces (stampings) of desired shape and size. Stamping is a production process that uses the power of conventional or special stamping equipment to directly subject the sheet to deformation force and deformation in the mold, thereby producing product parts with a certain shape, size, and performance. Sheet metal, die, and equipment is the three elements of stamping. Stamping is a processing method of metal cold deformation, so it is called cold stamping or sheet metal stamping or stamping for short. It is one of the main methods of metal-plastic working. high precision aluminum parts high precision aluminum parts high precision aluminum parts
In addition to the processing and forming process of aluminum alloy parts, the processing of aluminum alloy parts also involves surface treatment processes, including anodizing, electroplating, etching, etc. Various processing methods.